Situated in the Northeast of the state of Sao Paulo, Mogiana is a traditional region in the coffee cultivation for over 200 years. An Arabica producer in sandy soil with an altitude between 900 and 1,000 meters and a very mild annual average temperature (20 C), the area is known for its full bodied coffees, fruity flavored and having a natural sweetness.
These coffees are also known for their balance between sweetness and acidity. The Mogiana region is characterized for its excellence in the production of special coffees and is famous worldwide for its high quality.
One of the most traditional coffee producing regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Mogiana has Franca, Cristais Paulista, Jeriquara, Pedregulho, Rifaina, Itirapua, Patrocinio Paulista, Sao Jose da Bela Vista, Altinopolis, Batatais and Restinga as the main producing cities.
All of these cities developed from the coffee production and even now the product still has a great influence in the local economy, occupying 47,000 hectares of the cultivated area.
Producing only coffees of the Arabica species, the most cultivated varieties are Catuai and Mundo Novo. Mogiana is one of the few regions in Brazil that produce more fine coffees which are known for being softer coffees. However, producers also have harder coffees.
With a medium fertile soil, fertilizing is a necessity for the farms in Mogiana. The producers also use machinery, which is possible due to the virtue of the region’s topography and having less accentuated relief. Machine harvesting has grown a lot among the producers.
As for irrigation, there is not a great investment on behalf of the growers. Besides droughts and frost, which occasionally affect the region, the growers still undergo problems like the plague attacks , the greatest incidence being the “bicho mineiro”. Although the successive years of control have diminished the plague population remarkably , still it is a concern. Other than “bicho mineiro”, another present plague in the Mogiana region is the “buzzer”.
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Photo of Mogiana
Marilia and Garcia
The Midwest Paulista is a great region of the state of Sao Paulo which stood out in the last part of the 19th century until the mid 20th century along with the Northeast and Northwest Paulista, as the main coffee region in the state. The harvest boosted the economy and the local colonization during that period.
Currently the region still relies on the strong presence of the agriculture sector for its economy. This is associated with a significant growth in the third sector, since the end of the 20th century.
The Midwest Paulista boosted the agro business in the state during 19th and 20th century. An important economic part of the national scene, the region turned out to be one of the main keystones in coffee production.
The harvest was responsible for the economic leverage and the local colonization of that period. A second survey done by Diario , showed an estimate that Brazil exported almost 3,400,000 tons of coffee in the first decades of 19th century with a great part coming from the state of Sao Paulo.
Harvests would mainly go to Europe. The region of Marilia was one of the main coffee zones responsible for the abundant production of this staple. However the title “The Queen of the Coffee” was lost in the long run. In place of the coffee harvest other crops have gained ground and also have been adapted to new production and harvest technologies.
The region of Marilia attracts growers due to its fertile soil. It’s obvious that the coffee plantation was prized for its commercial value. This objective was linked to exportation. In the past centuries corn and rice plantations were only used for the family’s use. The scenario began to change in the middle of the decades of 1940’s and 1950’s when cotton and peanuts began to have a commercial value.
The region reached an area of over 50,000 hectares of coffee plantation. Today, the number has reduced to 28,000 hectares. However, due to changes in technology, they produce more than in those times.
Photo of Marilia and Garcia
Ourinhos and Avare
Ourinhos, Avare and a small part of Bauru. The largest concentration of coffee production is located in EDR of Ourinhos. Mainly it’s a small region (80%) and has the following as main problems: risks of frosts, quality of the coffee drink due to a humid winter as well as the great incidence of rust due to the climatic condition and high humidity.
It has surpassed these limiting factors for the coffee drink with investments in the processes of the preparing of the coffee. It has an area of approximately 18,000 hectares of coffee. The figures below present the average climatic data for the county of Tejupa, representative of this region cultivation.
The average monthly temperatures vary from 23 C in the Summer to 17 C in the Winter, having an annual average of 20.2C.
The annual rainfall is in the order of 1.325mm, during the rainy season, from September to March with around 1,053mm of rain and a dry season, from April to September, around 325mm of rain.
The region finds Autumn and Winter with periods of precipitations, with some excess surplus from the months of May to June leading to the extract of the hydric balance. In average terms, the total moisture amount is 434mm and usually dry periods do not occur.
Photo of Ourinhos e Avares