Sul de Minas /South of Minas
Coffee from the south of Minas Gerais . Its prodigious production has placed this part of Brazil on the international map as the main coffee producer of coffee in the world.
Curiously, this region is the greatest producer in the world! The greatest number of coffee trees planted per square meter are found in this region. Its high altitude and average annual temperature facilitates the production of bodied coffees, such as acidic flavors, smoothly citrus and with fruity aromas.
The city of Pocos de Caldas calls my attention, as it has been constructed over a crater of an extinct volcano (which probably never erupts), but this peculiarity provides an excellent terroir for coffee. In this area we find many coffees of the variety “Bourbon Amarelo”.
We also found a good quantity of “Fox Bean” (green coffee bean covered with a very sweet brown skin), very common in the mountains of Pocos.
Most cultivated varieties coffees
Predominance of Catuai and Mundo Novo, but there is also a great presence of Icatu, Obata and Catuai Rubi
Medium altitude: 950m
Characteristic: has some acidity
Some producing cities:
Varginha,Pouso Alegre, Passos, Itajuba, Sao sebastião do Paraíso, Santa Rita do Sapucaí, Andradas, Alfenas, Paraguacú, Três Coracoes, Três Pontas, Fama, Muzambinho and Guaxupe
Photos of Sul de Minas
Mantiqueira de Minas- Carmo de Minas
With the long ongoing tradition of the production of quality coffees, today Mantiqueira de Minas is one of the most prized regions of Brazil. In 2011 it was recognized as a geographical indicator (IG), in the modality Indication of Origin (IP), for its tradition and world reputation in producing coffees of high quality.
Composed of small growers, for the main part, this region distinguishes itself from others with the unique characteristics of the territory.
Data of the region:
Localization: South of the state of Minas Gerais
Producers’ profile: Small, for the most part (89%)
Producing area: 69,500 hectares
Annual Production: 1,340,000 sacks/60kg
Geographically protected as indicated
Home Page – http://www.carmocoffees.com.br
Photo of Mantiqueira
Chapada de Minas
The region of Chapada de Minas unites around 2,500 producers from 22 counties in the Vale do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri. And one of them is Capelinha (33,000 inhabitants).
Situated in the northeast of Minas, Vale do Jequitinhonha is remembered often for its bareness. Despite still being one of the poorest regions in Minas Gerais, for years there have been programs developed transforming the local conditions continuously.
This awareness of the coming wealth from both the precariousness as well as the abundance of the Vale has allowed the emergence of the area.
The newest frontier of Minas Gerais, explored for the coffee plantation, is Chapada de Minas (Jequetinhonha) where the city of Capelinha is located and concentrates an important part of the local production.
Different from Cerrado, in the Chapada region people from other parts of the state are the ones who work with coffee.
The Chapada region is already responsible for 8.4% of the coffee produced in the state of Minas Gerais and is in steady expansion.
Photo of Chapada de Minas
Matas de Minas
The Matas de Minas Region is a specialty coffee origin producer composed by 63 municipalities located in an area of Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the east of Minas Gerais State of Brazil.
The production is naturally sustainable, predominantly made up of family farming and impacted by direct and indirect economic and social factors in combination with the use of modern technology.
Altitude: The coffee is grown on mountain Farms with altitudes ranging from 600 and 1200 meters.
Flavor: Sweet and citric with caramel and chocolate.
Aroma: Intense, with floral and citrus notes.
Body: Medium to full bodied.
Acidity: Delicate and balanced.
Home Page – http://www.matasdeminas.org.br/eng
Photo da Mata de Minas
The Cerrado Mineiro Region is the first source producing coffee demarcated in Brazil, according to the decree of the Government of Minas Gerais, since April 1995, was also the first Geographical Indication coffee granted in the country.
There are 55 municipalities covered, located in Alto Parnaíba, Mineiro Triangle and Northwest Minas Gerais, presenting uniform edafoclimático pattern: average of 23º C, the relief is flat with altitude ranging from 800-1300 meters, which enables the production of high quality coffee .
The basic features of the Cerrado Mineiro Region of coffee drink are: intense aroma with aromatic notes of caramel and nuts; delicate citrus acidity, reminding orange; full-bodied drink with chocolatey finish long lasting.
The Federation of Coffee Growers Cerrado, is 3,500 (three thousand five hundred) farmers in the geographic area of the Cerrado Mineiro region; aims to promote sustainable regional coffee in his three aspects: social, environmental and economic.
It is the organization that brings together seven associations, nine Cooperatives and Development Foundation, NGO and certification of the origin and quality of coffee in this region.
It is manager and representative of the Geographical Indication region of Cerrado Mineiro, also being the body responsible for coordinating the institutional marketing activities in the region and the certification programs: Origin & Quality.
Has several agreements with domestic and international institutions in order to develop training programs to farmers of the Cerrado Mineiro through the affiliated associations and cooperatives in order to meet the requirements of Food Safety, Environmental and Social Responsibility, that the market demands.
Home Page – http://cerradomineiro.org
Photo of Cerrado Mineiro
São Paulo e Minas
Situated in the Northeast of the state of Sao Paulo, Mogiana is a traditional region in the coffee cultivation for over 200 years. An Arabica producer in sandy soil with an altitude between 900 and 1,000 meters and a very mild annual average temperature (20 C), the area is known for its full bodied coffees, fruity flavored and having a natural sweetness.
These coffees are also known for their balance between sweetness and acidity. The Mogiana region is characterized for its excellence in the production of special coffees and is famous worldwide for its high quality.
One of the most traditional coffee producing regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Mogiana has Franca, Cristais Paulista, Jeriquara, Pedregulho, Rifaina, Itirapua, Patrocinio Paulista, Sao Jose da Bela Vista, Altinopolis, Batatais and Restinga as the main producing cities.
All of these cities developed from the coffee production and even now the product still has a great influence in the local economy, occupying 47,000 hectares of the cultivated area.
Producing only coffees of the Arabica species, the most cultivated varieties are Catuai and Mundo Novo. Mogiana is one of the few regions in Brazil that produce more fine coffees which are known for being softer coffees. However, producers also have harder coffees.
With a medium fertile soil, fertilizing is a necessity for the farms in Mogiana. The producers also use machinery, which is possible due to the virtue of the region’s topography and having less accentuated relief. Machine harvesting has grown a lot among the producers.
As for irrigation, there is not a great investment on behalf of the growers. Besides droughts and frost, which occasionally affect the region, the growers still undergo problems like the plague attacks , the greatest incidence being the “bicho mineiro”. Although the successive years of control have diminished the plague population remarkably , still it is a concern. Other than “bicho mineiro”, another present plague in the Mogiana region is the “buzzer”.
Home Page- http://www.amsc.com.br
Photo of Mogiana
Marilia and Garcia
The Midwest Paulista is a great region of the state of Sao Paulo which stood out in the last part of the 19th century until the mid 20th century along with the Northeast and Northwest Paulista, as the main coffee region in the state. The harvest boosted the economy and the local colonization during that period.
Currently the region still relies on the strong presence of the agriculture sector for its economy. This is associated with a significant growth in the third sector, since the end of the 20th century.
The Midwest Paulista boosted the agro business in the state during 19th and 20th century. An important economic part of the national scene, the region turned out to be one of the main keystones in coffee production.
The harvest was responsible for the economic leverage and the local colonization of that period. A second survey done by Diario , showed an estimate that Brazil exported almost 3,400,000 tons of coffee in the first decades of 19th century with a great part coming from the state of Sao Paulo.
Harvests would mainly go to Europe. The region of Marilia was one of the main coffee zones responsible for the abundant production of this staple. However the title “The Queen of the Coffee” was lost in the long run. In place of the coffee harvest other crops have gained ground and also have been adapted to new production and harvest technologies.
The region of Marilia attracts growers due to its fertile soil. It’s obvious that the coffee plantation was prized for its commercial value. This objective was linked to exportation. In the past centuries corn and rice plantations were only used for the family’s use. The scenario began to change in the middle of the decades of 1940’s and 1950’s when cotton and peanuts began to have a commercial value.
The region reached an area of over 50,000 hectares of coffee plantation. Today, the number has reduced to 28,000 hectares. However, due to changes in technology, they produce more than in those times.
Photo of Marilia and Garcia
Ourinhos and Avare
Ourinhos, Avare and a small part of Bauru. The largest concentration of coffee production is located in EDR of Ourinhos. Mainly it’s a small region (80%) and has the following as main problems: risks of frosts, quality of the coffee drink due to a humid winter as well as the great incidence of rust due to the climatic condition and high humidity.
It has surpassed these limiting factors for the coffee drink with investments in the processes of the preparing of the coffee. It has an area of approximately 18,000 hectares of coffee. The figures below present the average climatic data for the county of Tejupa, representative of this region cultivation.
The average monthly temperatures vary from 23 C in the Summer to 17 C in the Winter, having an annual average of 20.2C.
The annual rainfall is in the order of 1.325mm, during the rainy season, from September to March with around 1,053mm of rain and a dry season, from April to September, around 325mm of rain.
The region finds Autumn and Winter with periods of precipitations, with some excess surplus from the months of May to June leading to the extract of the hydric balance. In average terms, the total moisture amount is 434mm and usually dry periods do not occur.
Photo of Ourinhos e Avares
Chapada da Diamantina
The mountains of Chapada das Diamantinas, located in the heart of Bahia, have directly contributed to the pleasing experience of the mountains. The region started gaining international notoriety not only for its beautiful landscape but is also recognized for its production of gourmet and special coffees.
The categories of the drinks and the harvests are considered to be excellent and have drawn connoisseurs and baristas from all over the world.
Having a distinctive flavor, the coffee drink is smooth, with notes of molasses, citric fruits and red berries as well as an elegant acidity and an intense aroma. From this region come exclusive blends which are combinations of beans and different roasting levels. Café Terroa, from the county of Piata, created three types called Sol Amarelo, Terra Vermelha and Vento Forte.
Each one has sensory characteristic that please discerning palates. To achieve this result many growers work on artisanal basis. Coffees from Piata, one of the highest counties of the Northeast, have already achieved many prizes and many times have been champions of Bahia. In 2009, they achieved Brazilian champion status in the most prestigious championship of the sector, The Cup Of Excellence which also occurs in other coffee producing countries of the world. In 2011, the county coffee reached second place, surpassing growers of other traditional regions of Brazil.
The production of high quality coffee can be credited mainly to its mild and dry climate as well as an altitude of around 1100 to 1500m. The altitude is the main natural element to control the quality of the beans. The higher the altitude the more aromatic and richer in sugars and natural acids tend to be.
Every region has farms in the higher altitudes like the main county producers such as Mucuge, Piata Ibicoara and in the district of Vale do Capao located in Palmeiras.
Photos of Chapada Diamantina
The coffee of the West region of Bahia appeared in the mid 1990’s when a Portuguese coffee farmer, with a extensive experience in the irrigated production in Angola, believed that the Arabica coffee would be successful in the local conditions.
Aside from this story of discovery, the activity today concentrates 15,000 irrigated hectares among a group of 36 growers.
The region is located in the extreme west of Bahia whose county producers make a division with the states of Tocantins, Goias and Minas Gerais having Barreiras, Luis Eduardo Magalhaes, Sao Desiderio and Cocos mainly. The profile of these production areas is easily identified because they are in the Cerrado region with a totally plain relief and a peculiar edaphoclimatic condition.
The temperature presents little annual variation, with average of about 23C, high sun levels, and average height of 800 meters. Rain accumulation of 1,500mm is concentrated between the months of October and April, allowing harvest without rains.
As a result the productivity of Arabica coffee in the West region of Bahia has an average of 45 sacks/hec. This number is the outcome of the farming being 100% irrigated and, along with high technological standards of production, large machinery is used in the plantation.
Good management also yields very good success. To be able to follow this type of production there is a grower’s entrepreneur profile. The major part of the coffee growers from other Brazilian regions inherited successful experiences that broadened horizons for this recent coffee plantation.
This way the differentials of the region interact with the use of high technology and machinery with regular producers and good volumes of coffee obtained in a very well defined geographical region. Competent producers have adapted to innovations that help configure the coffee plantation of the West of Bahia.
The value for the coffee market of the region is the profile of the coffee drink with smooth and fruity patterns, good sweetness and low acidity, as well as the security in commercializing while facing the low risks involved in the production.
Description of the Region:
Number of producers-1,000
Planted Area-139,550 hectares
Average productivity- 16.5 sacks/hectare
Average annual temperature-31
Total Productivity- 2,300,000 sacks
Home Page – http://www.abacafe.org.br
Photo of Cerrado Bahiano
Planalto da Bahia
The Southwest region of Bahia Planalto da Conquista, where in 1971 the first coffee trees were planted, today has 2,500 producers who are represented by a cooperative that has 240 associates and an association (ASCCON).
The climate of the region is tropical, with an average temperature of 20 C; and having a plain and slightly wavy
topography. In this region the washed coffee produced by small growers is either semi washed or natural in a harvest area of 19 hec with the use of appropriate technology.
There are also high end growers producing over 50 sacks/ hec. for over 8 seasons. The distinction of the Southwest of Bahia is in the selective harvesting of fine coffees from an altitude of 900 meters. The market values in this region coffees are full washed, fine cupping, good bodied, sweetened and positive acidity.
Description of the Region:
Number of producers- 10,000
Planted Area-139,550 hectares
Average productivity 16.5 sacks/hectare
Average Annual Temperature- 31 C
Total Production- 2,300,000 sacks
Photo of Planalto da Bahia
To talk about the history of coffee in Espirito Santo is like talking about the history of the state itself because the cultivation and the commercialization of the product determine not only the prevailing economy as well as having deep roots in the cultural Capixaba identity.
Coffee is the main agricultural activity in generating income and also generating jobs. This production in the agro-business is present in Espirito Santo since the time of the Empire in Brazil.
At that time there were large farms that belonged to the Portuguese who produced coffees in the mountains using slave labor. However, with the slave abolition, these farms were abandoned in 1892.
At that point predominantly Italian and German immigrants came looking for land, seeking clear openings in the woods where there were semi abandoned coffee farms.
They then purchased parts of these semi abandoned farms and continued their cultivation. That was how coffee cultivation began in this region and even today it retains strong traces of these immigrant’s cultures, mainly their community and progressive spirit.
In this region, small farms are predominant with family basis that have as their main characteristic the presence of participating farmers with cultural identity and traditional knowledge.
They have always sought a better quality of life. A remarkable characteristic is the presence of the family living in the farms, having as the main focus the single activity…agriculture.
Description of the Region:
Coffee from Espirito Santo (Arabica)
Varieties of most cultivated coffees
Mundo Novo and Catuai
Number of producers- 10,000
Planted area-460,193 hectares
Average altitude- 700 to 1000 meters
Photo of Espírito Santo
The coffee plantation in Parana came to be in the 1930’s and had its expansion in the 1950’s. Many cities such as Londrina, Maringa and Campo Mourao, emerged along with the arrival of the coffee. In the 60’s coffee reached 1,800,000 hectares planted in the state.
Today this number has reached 156,000,000 hectares. Currently the agricultural products most grown in Parana are soy and flour, but coffee is still present in approximately 210 counties and is responsible for 3.2% of the Paranaense agricultural income.
Approximately 76 thousand people have direct employment in the culture. In addition to the production, another sector that also employs is the instant coffee industry. The two largest instant coffee exporting industries in the country are, Companhia Cacique de Café Soluvel and Cia. Iguacu de Café Soluvel. Both companies are located in this state.
The growing areas are very extensive mainly because of the great variety of altitudes. The average altitude is approximately 650 meters in the region of Arenito near Rio Parana. Rio Parana’s altitude is 350 meters and in the region of Apucarana it reaches 900 meters. The state grows the Arabica specie and the predominant varieties are Mundo Novo and Catuai.
The state of Parana does not need irrigation because its hydric deficit is not very high. Only in the region of Arenito where the climate is warmer could the use of technology help enhance the size of the beans. Machinery is utilized very little in the farms in Parana.
Two reasons that explain this are, first, the hilly terrains and, second, the predominance of small growers. A reaction to this labor work caused the adoption of the dense system of the planting, which also protects the farms from the frost.
Another factor that is different in the farms in Parana is the selective harvest. This technique is used in Colombia consisting of the harvesting only of the ripe fruits and increasing the quality of the product. Therefore there is a need for more labor work because the same coffee tree is harvested more than once.
The North Pioneer of Parana (O Norte Pioneiro do Parana)
This was considered the gateway for the colonialization of the northern part of this state. Established in 1890, new ways of economic development and progress came to be in this important Brazilian agricultural region.
Many cities of Parana were born from the coffee culture such as Jacarezinho, Cornelio Procopio, Londrina and Maringa.
After the decree of the Treaty of Taubute prohibiting the developing of new areas of coffee production in the state of Sao Paulo, there was a new beginning of coffee culture in the richest Paranaense soil.
The state was able to produce approximately 22 million sacks of coffee between the decades of the 50’s and 70’s, having been the main world producer of this Rubiacea, , combining soils of the volcanic origins of the highest natural fertility with a mild climate as well as evenly distributed rains throughout the year.
Nowadays ,The North Pioneiro of Parana produces 50% of the state’s coffee, not having the most quantity as its highlight, but having a great potential for the special coffee production both certified and sustainable.
Description of the Region
Number of producers (growers) – 7,500
Plantation Area – 81.874 hectares (202 acres)
Arabic – 100%
Average Production – 28 sacks/ hectare
Annual Average Temperature – 19 C to 21 C
Total Production – 2.2 million sacks
Photo of Paraná
Coffee is the perennial crop most widespread in the state of Rondonia composing a major source of income for numerous families of the countryside.
In Rondonia, generally the coffee robusta plantation is done in small farms, with low technological level and great useful family labor work. About 90% of the coffee area is planted with the robusta specie, having conilon planting utilized in approximately 95% of the properties.
Rondonia owes a lot to the coffee crop! The agrarian colonization in the beginning attracted many people to live and establish themsrlves in the state.
Those who migrated and invested in the development of the region would have been entitled to an official temporary occupation of the area through tenure. This was somewhat how everything began. Currently the state is the second greatest producer of the robusta coffee of Brazil, with an approximate production of 165,000 hectares.
In general the conilon coffee crop in Rondonia is done in small areas and relies on great utilization of family labor work. The largest part of the fruits from the coffee trees is dried in coffee yards and the growth is not very uniform. Unfortunately the precarious infra structure and low technological level makes easier for great quantity of grains to have faults.
The climate in this region is warm, humid and dry and a short season is expected. The annual average temperature varies from 24.6 C to 25.6C while its indices of annual average rains is above/over 1,400mm.
An interesting fact is that 90% of the production of Rondonia consists of robusta coffee. In Vilhena, however there are some plantations of the Arabica species.
Coffee from Rodonia-(Robusta)
Varieties of most cultivated coffees
Taste- Presents neutral characteristics
Some producing cities:
Cacoal, Ji-Parana, Vilhen, Rolim de Moura, Cafelandia, Vale do Guapore
Photos of Rondonia
Rio de Janeiro
The first cuts of coffee arrived in Rio de Janeiro in the 1970”s. The plant at first was cultivated in yards and farmsteads in the surroundings of mountainous valleys, near the seashore. Between 1835 and 1867 the production of coffee increased six fold. In 1882.
The Fluminense coffee production reached its maximum level in . In 1870, the decline of productivity was visible in the first areas occupied by coffee.In 1880, the production was 4,133 466 sacks and by the end of 1889 1,309,271 sacks were produced.
This decline is due to the use of traditional techniques of agricultural production so the virgin soil was utilized in a predatory way. Forests were burned to give way for coffee, making the soil very poor. Agriculture plagues such as the ant sauva, grasshoppers, birds and rust attacked the plants.
Besides that, the devastation of the forests caused climatic changes in Vale do Paraiba and soil erosion having been subjected to torrentials rains in the region. In the last decades the reduction of virgin lands for new plantations 1900’s generated great rises in prices for land.
Progressively the state of Sao Paulo began moving to region of Rio de Janeiro for coffee production. In 1883 the production of Sao Paulo was the same as Rio and even overtaking it in the following years. Porto de Santos became the main exportation port of the country.
New railroads began linking Minas Gerais to this port, bringing exports of that state from the Porto do Rio de Janeiro.
The decline of coffee in the state made Rio de Janeiro diversify its economy, through the industrial, commercial and financial production and the development of goods and services